C o p p e r
Is required component of many redox enzymes, including cytochrome c oxidase.
Copper is an essential trace element that is vital to the health of all living things (humans, plants, animals, and microorganisms). In humans, copper is essential to the proper functioning of organs and metabolic processes. The human body has complex homeostatic mechanisms which attempt to ensure a constant supply of available copper, while eliminating excess copper whenever this occurs.
Copper is incorporated into a variety of proteins and metalloenzymes which perform essential metabolic functions; the micronutrient is necessary for the proper growth, development, and maintenance of bone, connective tissue, brain, heart, and many other body organs. Copper is involved in the formation of red blood cells, the absorption and utilization of iron, the metabolism of cholesterol and glucose, and the synthesis and release of life-sustaining proteins and enzymes. These enzymes in turn produce cellular energy and regulate nerve transmission, blood clotting, and oxygen transport.
Copper stimulates the immune system to fight infections, to repair injured tissues, and to promote healing. Copper also helps to neutralize "free-radicals", which can cause severe damage to cells.
If an insufficient amount of copper is ingested for a short period of time, copper stores in the liver will be depleted.
due to homeostatic regulation, the human body is capable of balancing a wide range of copper intakes for the needs of healthy individuals.
Copper transport at the cellular level involves the movement of extracellular copper across the cell membrane and into the cell by specialized transporters.
In the bloodstream, copper is carried throughout the body by albumin, ceruloplasmin, and other proteins. The majority of blood copper (or serum copper) is bound to ceruloplasmin.
900 µg RDA - 10'000 µg UL
RDA (recommanded dietary allowances) per day 
UL (tolerable upper intake level) per day 
 Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
 Dietary Reference Intakes: Tolerable Upper Intake Levels, Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, National Academies, 1997